Navigating the IATRA Exam: A Key Step for Aspiring Commercial Pilots in Canada

Embarking on a career as a commercial pilot in Canada is an ambitious and exciting journey, with the Instrument Rating Aeroplane Type (IATRA) exam standing as a crucial milestone in this path. Administered by Transport Canada, the IATRA exam is not merely a regulatory hoop to jump through; it’s a critical step toward ensuring a pilot’s proficiency and readiness for the complexities of commercial aviation. For the aspiring pilots, particularly those aged 18-35, acing this exam is pivotal for their career progression.

Understanding the IATRA Exam

The IATRA exam is designed to assess the knowledge and readiness of pilots aspiring to operate multi-crew aircraft or acquire a Cruise Relief Pilot Authorization. It encompasses various subjects crucial to commercial aviation, including air law, meteorology, navigation, aerodynamics, and more, all tailored to the nuances of piloting larger, more complex aircraft in a team-oriented environment.

Without the IATRA exam being written, you cannot earn a type rating on an aircraft. If you want to be hired at an air operator which flies a Metroliner or larger, you’ll need this or both of your ATPL written exams completed.

A321 View from the cockpit which requires the IATRA to be written.
To fly an aircraft like this A321, a pilot needs to have the IATRA written or both ATPL exams completed.

The Significance of the IATRA Exam

  1. Career Advancement: Success in the IATRA exam enables pilots to transition from general or smaller commercial operations to larger, multi-crew aircraft, often associated with major airlines.
  2. Ensuring Safety and Proficiency: This exam guarantees that pilots have the necessary knowledge to operate safely and efficiently in the diverse scenarios encountered in commercial aviation.
  3. Meeting Regulatory Standards: As a mandated requirement in Canada for specific pilot endorsements, the IATRA exam is essential for legal compliance and career advancement in aviation.

Preparing for the IATRA Exam: Strategies for Success

Thorough preparation is key to conquering the IATRA exam. Ground schools, including ours, offer invaluable resources and support in this journey. Here are some strategies and tips to help you prepare effectively:

  1. Utilize Quality Study Materials: Leverage the resources provided by your ground school or which can be found below in our IATRA notes. These materials are specifically designed to cover the exam’s curriculum comprehensively. Ensure you understand the fundamental concepts, not just memorize facts.
  2. Regular Practice Tests: Familiarize yourself with the exam format and question style through regular practice tests. This helps in identifying areas where you need more focus and improves your time management skills during the actual exam.
  3. Seek Expert Guidance: Take advantage of the experience and insights of seasoned instructors. They can offer practical tips and clarify complex topics, making your study process more efficient and effective. The abbreviated IATRA notes are great.
  4. Create a Study Plan: Organize your study time effectively. Break down the syllabus into manageable sections and set a realistic timetable to cover each topic thoroughly.
  5. Group Study Sessions: Collaborate with fellow aspirants for group study sessions. This encourages knowledge sharing and can provide different perspectives on difficult topics.
  6. Stay Updated on Regulations: The aviation world is constantly evolving. Stay informed about any changes in regulations or procedures that might affect the exam content.
  7. Focus on Weak Areas: Identify your weaker subjects and allocate more time to them. Don’t hesitate to seek extra help on these topics from instructors or peers.
  8. Health and Wellness: Maintain a healthy lifestyle during your preparation period. Proper nutrition, adequate sleep, and regular exercise can significantly improve your cognitive functions and stress management.


The IATRA exam is a critical juncture in the journey of an aspiring commercial pilot in Canada. It’s a testament to a pilot’s skill, knowledge, and readiness for the demanding world of commercial aviation. With diligent preparation, strategic study practices, and the support of a good ground school, this challenging exam can be tackled successfully. It’s not just about passing a test; it’s about laying the foundation for a safe, successful, and fulfilling career in the skies.

Here are the IATRA notes which were provided to us by a former student who successfully passed his exam. The information was obtained elsewhere and is not the original content of Canadian Flight Trainers. These are the traditional “IATRA notes” or the “avcanada notes” that people often refer to.

IATRA Study Notes

Balanced Field Length 

  • Condition where the accelerate-go distance equals the accelerate-stop distance 


  • An area beyond the runway designated by airport authorities for use in decelerating for a/c during an aborted t/o
    • Must also be width of runway 


  • Clear area at the end of the rwy over which an aircraft can accelerate and climb after t/o
    • Used for engine failures and must be wider because it is harder to maintain control of the aircraft with one engine in the air
    • Can not have obstacles higher than 26’’ (MAX 1000’)

Take-Off Run Available 

  • The length of rwy declared available and suitable for the ground run of t/o
    • ASDA = TORA + Stopway 
    • TODA = TORA + Clearway


  • To ensure conservative performance predictions, airport analysis and takeoff performance charts are based on 50% headwind and the entered 150% of the entered tailwind


Increase V1Decrease V1
Increase in weightHeadwindUpsloping rwyHigher Pressure Altitude Higher TemperatureExcess RunwayReduced Engine outputDecrease in weightTailwindDownsloping rwyLower Pressure AltitudeLower Temperature Ice on RWY Anti skid off
  • If engine fails on T/O
    • Above V1 = must t/o
    • Below V1 = must abort t/o 
  • V1 can not be greater than Vr or max brake energy speed 


  • Dynamic
    • Due to standing water on the rwy (3mm or more)
    • Tire is completely supported by water
    • Tire has to be faster than critical speed
  • Viscous
    • Damp surface with thin layer of water 
    • Usually happens on smooth surfaces like the TDZ with lots of rubber smears 
    • Found most commonly at beginning and end of runway
  • Reverted Rubber
    • Non-rotating tire that causes a lot of heat 
    • Where hot tire boils water on wet runway surface after long skid 
    • Steam prevents tire from contacting the rwy
      • Tire Formulas
        • Rotating tire (t/o) 9 x √tire pressure
        • Non-rotating tire (Landing) 7.7 x √tire pressure  

Journey Log Requirements 

  • Must keep records for at least 1 year
    • Needed when shutting down at an airport 

Technical Records 

  • Technical record book should always have an unbroken chronological record from the previous book

Aircraft Flight Manual 

  • Must have AFM available to all crew members at their duty stations
    • Includes all amendments and supplementary material specific to a/c type 

Unserviceable or Removed Equipment 

  • Aircraft should not be flown if the PIC thinks the removed item will affect aviation safety 
  • You may fly with removed/unserviceable equipment only if there is a flight permit and it is followed
    • Without an MEL
      • Must not be standard of airworthiness for day/night VFR
      • POH requirements 
      • AOC equipment requirements 
      • AD’s
      • Must also be placarded
        • Must also be entered into the journey log 
    • With MEL
      • Where MEL has been approved you can fly with certain items being unserviceable as long as the MEL conditions are followed and carried on board. 


  • Actual TAS
    • High temps & speeds have more to TAS than correcting for CAS for pressure altitude 
  • Compressibility
    • False higher airspeed indications 
    • False higher temperature readings 
    • TAT (Total air temp) + ram rise correction = SAT (Static air temp)

Specific Ground Range = Best economical altitude (GS/Fuel flow)

Specific Air Range = Comparison in performance b/w different a/c (TAS/Fuel flow) 

Use of Oxygen 

  • At cabin pressurization of 10000’ – 13000’
    • Each crew member shall wear oxygen mask for any part of flight that is more than 30 minutes 
  • At cabin pressurization of above 13000’
    • Each person on board the a/c shall wear an oxygen mask and use supplemental oxygen for the duration of the flight. 
  • The pilot at the controls of an a/c shall use an oxygen mask if the a/c…
    • Is not equipped with a quick donning mask above an altitude of FL250
    • Is equipped with a quick donning mask above an altitude of FL410 

Flight Data Recorder 

  • Needed for Multi-turbine 
  • Needed for 705 operations including cargo
    • Begins at t/o until completion of landing 

Cockpit Voice Recorder 

  • Needed for Multi-turbine 
  • Needed for 6 or more seats
    • Operates once electrical power is activated until completion of landing  


  • If you have an MEL
    • May operate without either the CVR or the FDR (up to 90 days)
  • No MEL
    • You may operate with one of the two for up to 90 days

Altitude Alerting System 

  • Needed for Turbo-jet 
  • May be operated without if
    • Your MEL allows for it 
    • No MEL
      • From where it sits to a place where it can have one installed 
      • For a flight test, PPC or flight crew training 
      • If it breaks after t/o until it reaches an airport where device can be fixed

Ground Proximity 

  • Turbojet operating under 704/705 aircraft with 10+ seats 


  • High altitude training done initially and every 3 years afterwards operated above 13000’
  • CRM training for airlines 

Takeoff Minima (IATRA exam)

  • Commuter an Airlines must
    • Clear all obstacles by 35’ vertically & 200’ horizontally within the aerodrome
      • Or 300’ outside of the aerodrome
      • Unless
        • Authorized in AOC
        • Follows CASS

Takeoff Weight Limitations 

  • Must be under gross weight
  • Must take into account
    • Pressure gradient 
    • Temperature 
    • Runway Slope
    • Not more than 50% of headwind component and 150% for tailwind 

Operator of an Aircraft 

  • The owner 
  • The person leasing the aircraft 

Enroute Limitations with One Engine Operative 

  • With one engine inoperative you must be able to operate at least as high as MOCA
    • IFR or Night VFR
  • In Day VFR
    • At least 500’ above the surface
  • Airline
    • Must be at least 2000’ above terrain and obstacles within 5nm 

Fuel Requirements (IATRA)

  • VFR
    • Day 30 minutes
    • Night 45 minutes
  • IFR with Alternate
    • Enroute, Approach, missed approach, to alternate and 45 minutes at cruise (30 for jets) 
  • IFR without Alternate
    • Approach and missed approach, and 45 minutes at cruise (30 for jet)


  • No air operator can fly a twin engine a/c running on one engine further than 60 minutes away from airport 

Type Rating – 2 Crew Airplane 

  • Required for 2 crew a/c or high performance
    • High performance requires 200 hours
    • 2 crew requires 250 hours 
  • High performance
    • Vne = 250 kts or greater 
    • Vso = 80 kts or greater 
  • 2 crew Airplane
    • Completed acceptable ground school and flight training on type 
    • Successful ATPL or IATRA within last 24 months 
    • Succesul PPC ride within the last 12 months 

Landing Distance 

  • Begins at 50’ above the runway of intended use above to the threshold and extends to where plane comes to a complete stop

Landing at Destination and Alternate Aerodromes 

  • Turbojet powered a/c must be able to land within 60% of the LDA
  • Propellor driven a/c must be able to land within 70% of the LDA
    • Wet Runways
      • When you suspect the runway may be wet at your ETA, the LDA at destination must be at least 115% of the landing distance for Jet aircraft. 
      • If AFM includes specific info about landing distances on wet runways you may break the wet runway distance needed but never 60%

Landing Technique  (IATRA)

  1. Get Mains down
  2. Initiate Reverse 
  3. Lower nose wheel
  4. Full reverse thrusters 
  5. Full Breaking 
  6. Spoilers and any other equipment used to stop a/c

Wake Turbulence – Typically encountered 1000’ below a/c (Slow, Clean, heavy) 

Wind Shear 

  • Sudden change of strength or wind direction
    • Increasing performance wind shear
      • Reduce power than add power to original setting
    • Decreasing performance wind shear
      • Add power than reduce power original setting


  • Heavy behind Heavy – 4 miles
  • Medium behind Heavy – 5 miles
  • light behind Heavy – 6 miles
  • light behind Medium – 4 miles
    • Non-Radar area
      • A/C departing from threshold behind heavy – 2 minutes
      • A/C departing from further up on the runway behind heavy – 3 minutes
      • Light departing further down runway behind medium – 3 minutes 

High Level Airspace – 18000’ and up

RVSM (Reduced Vertical Separation Minima) 

  • FL 290 – FL 410 is designed for RVSM
    • Greater technology allows for 1000’ separation rather than 2000’
    • Must have 2 independent altimeters (25’), autopilot with altitude holder & altitude alerter

Controlled Altitudes 

  • Northern Control Area – FL230
  • Arctic Control Area – FL270
  • Southern Control Area – FL180

Vertical Separation Limitations 

  • 29.92 and above = FL180
  • 29.91 – 28.92 = FL190
  • 28.91 – 27.92 = FL200

Airspeed Limitations 

  • Below 10000’ max speed is 250 KIAS
  • Below 3000’ and within 10 nm of a control zone 200 KIAS
    • On a flight plan, you must maintain your 5% of your TAS and 0.01 mach

Flight Time Limitations  (IATRA)

  • 1200 hours = 365 days
  • 300 hours = 90 days
  • 120 hours = 30 days
  • 60 hours = 7 days (702/703)
  • 40 hours = 7 days (704/705)
    • 8 hours in single pilot IFR 

Duty Time Limitations 

  • 14 hours a day may be extended if
    • Minimum rest period extended by at least 1 hour
    • Maximum flight time doesn’t exceed 8 hours in a 24 hour period 
    • Maximum of 6 non-overlapping periods of 30 days within a 365 day period 
  • PIC consults with other crew and considers it safe
  • The subsequent rest period increases at least the amount of the extension 
  • Report shall be written to account for the reason and kept on file 

Monitoring Flight Time 

  • Air operators must have system that monitors flight time and rest periods
    • Should be included in the COM
  • You are responsible for informing the operator that you will go over your flight time if you become aware of the situation. 

4 Speed Regimes 

  • Subsonic (0-0.8 mach)
    • Airflow is lower than the speed of sound over all parts of the aircraft 
  • Transonic (0.8 – 1.2 mach)
    • Airflow begins to compress air enough to generate shock waves on parts of the wing and fuselage
    • Airflow is greater than the speed of sound over some parts and less than the speed of sound over others 
  • Supersonic (1.2 – 5 mach)
    • Airflow over all parts of the a/c are greater than the speed of sound 
  • Hypersonic
    • >Mach 5 or more 

Critical Mach (Mcrit)

  • The speed at which the first shockwaves start to form
    • Shockwaves form on the upper surface of the wing 

Drag Rise 

  • Aircraft feels sudden increase in drag, aft movement of C of P and eventual loss of control
    • A/C should not operate above the 5% above MACH CRIT!!!!!!!!!!!due to effect of drag diversion and increased fuel consumption. 

Mach Tuck 

  • Due to effects of shock flow induced separation, there is less download on the horizontal stabilizer, therefore less longitudinal stability)
    • Mach tuck also moves the C of P aft 
  • Can exaggerate with swept back wings as root section will lose lift first 
  • There factors cause a strong diving nose down tendency called Mach Tuck

Vortex Generators 

  • Mix airflow from above wing with air from the boundary layer to slow down speed delaying shockwaves 


  • Slowing the airflow down over the wing
    • Recovering from Dutch roll
      • Only use aileron to correct
      • Do not chase with rudder 
  • Yaw damper uses gyro system to correct with rudder to stop the rolling tendency 

Meteorology (IATRA)


  • High to low, lookout below 
  • Hot to cold, don’t be bold
    • Drift and altimeter error
    • Temperature error 


  • Isobar
    • Lines of equal pressure 
  • Isotach
    • Line of equal velocity 
  • Contour Lines
    • Line of altitudes having equal pressure 

Lapse Rate 

  • DALR
    • 3℃/1000’
  • SALR
    • 1.5℃/1000’ 
  • Standard Lapse Rate
    • 1.98℃/1000’ 

Jet Streams

  • Develop with strong pressure gradient, stronger the gradient, = stronger temp gradient,= stronger the winds
    • Key is tropopause
    • Stronger upper winds that develop with strong horizontal temperature gradient
  • To qualify, must be at least 60 kts  
  • B/w 25-40 thousand, as low as 15’000’ 

Jet Stream Weather 

  • Tropopause is lower over the poles and warmer than over the equator 
  • cA, mA, mP, mT
  • Jet stream takes name of frontal system causing it
  • Jet stream found in warm air side on the cold line border 
  • Vertical shear is major cause of CAT

Clear Air Turbulence 

  • Not related to convective activity
  • Since Jet streams are stronger in winter, CAT is more common in winter 
  • Can be caused by mountain waves, or wind shear b/w jet core and surrounding air 

If CAT is encountered crossing Jet Stream

  • Note the OAT
    • If it rises, climb to depart the CAT 
    • IF it is constant, climb or descend
    • If it drops, descend to depart the CAT 

If CAT is encountered while flying in a direct HW or TW 

  • Climb, descend or change course
  • In North America, it is generally best to turn south in warmer air 
  • Ex. Where 30 kt isotachs are spaced closer than 90nm on 250mb charts, CAT can be expected from the wind shear 
    • Expect vertical shear when 5°C isotherms are spaced closer than 2° of latitude 

Surface Weather Charts 

  • When based on actual data they are called SURFACE ANALYSIS charts 
  • A surface prognostic chart shows future expected pressure patterns

Upper Air Charts  (IATRA Study notes)

  • Often names in reference to pressure level
850 mb5,000
700 mb10,000
500 mb18,000
400 mb24,000 (only used on Significant Wx chart)

Contour Lines

  • Represents the pressure level on which the chart is based (Decameters)
    • Add 0 onto end of number and x 3.28
    • Ex. 150 = 1500 x 3.28 = 4920’ 
  • Since temps are colder in the north, PL’s are lower toward the North
  • In upper air chart, Wind blows parallel to the contours

Lines and Symbols 

  • Contour lines are 60 m starting at 1500 m (solid lines)
  • Isotherms at 5°C (Dashed lines)                                ccde

Be familiar with these

  • 500 mb (18,000)
    • Contours at 60 m intervals 
    • Dashed lines are NOT isotherms, they indicate thickness of the pressure layer 
  • 250 mb chart (34000)
    • Contours are 120 m intervals
    • Dashed lines are Isotachs at 30 kts intervals
    • Winds speed range indicated by shading (legend at top)
  • Wind speed is also shown with
    • Feathers = 10kts
    • ½ feather = 5kts
    • Triangle = 50kts

Significant Wx 

  • For FL100 to FL250 based on pressure levels 700 mb

Standard Atmosphere 

  • 15 Celsius 
  • 29.92 hg (1013.2 hPa) 
  • 1.98 Celsius / 1000’ 

Air Masses (IATRA)

  • Continental Arctic
    • Dry, very cold, very stable, very low tropopause 
  • Maritime Arctic
    • Moist, cold, unstable in lower levels, low tropopause
  • Maritime Polar
    • Moist, cool, unstable, medium tropopause
  • Maritime Tropical
    • Moist, hot, very unstable, high tropopause 


  • Warm frontal Slope = 1-3 degree
  • Cold Frontal Slope = Less than 1 degree
    • Usually more unstable air mass because it causes frontal lift when the dense air undercuts the warm air 

Weather Chart Symbols 

  • Stationary Front
    • Alternate red and blue line with triangle and semi circles on either side 
  • Occluded Front
    • Continuous purple line with triangles and semicircles 
  • Trowel
    • Blue Lines with red angled lines 
  • Upper Cold Front
    • Broken blue line with unshaded triangles 
  • Upper Warm Front
    • Broken red line with unshaded triangles 


  • High to low, look out below
  • Hot to Cold, don’t be bold 
  • Back to the wind, low on the left 

Reflectivity (In Order) 

  • Wet hail, rain, wet snow, dry hail, dry snow 

CRFI Will provide indications of – water (rain), Ice, wet & dry snow, slush

*Weather Radar = Primary*


  • Always pass at least  3 miles on the upwind and 10 miles on the downwind side of a TS
  • Stages
    • Cumulus Stage
      • Only updrafts 
      • Average life span is 20 minutes 
    • Mature Stage
      • Rain hits the surface 
      • Average Life Span 20-30 minutes 
      • Create 2500’/minute downdrafts
      • Max 6000’/minute updrafts 
    • Dissipating Stage
      • All downdrafts 
      • 1-2 hour lifespan 


  • No cloud beneath 5000’
    • P6sm
    • No cb’s
    • No precip

Lightning Strikes 

  • Most common temperature for lightning are b/w -5℃ & +5℃
    • Most common in Mature stage 

Clear Ice 

  • Large supercooled water droplets
    • Higher rate of catch 
  • Common b/w 0 & -10℃
  • Commonly found in Cumulus clouds 

Rime Ice 

  • Opaque
  • Small supercooled droplets
    • Low rate of catch 
    • Moves forward as it collects
  • Commonly b/w -10℃ & -20℃
  • Commonly found in stratus clouds 


  • Most severe b/w 0℃ & -15℃
    • Cloud thickness b/w 5000’ – 8000’
  • Icing in TCU’s can exist as low as -25℃
  • Small supercooled droplets exist more at low temperatures in comparison to large supercooled droplets
  • High speed aircraft and thin wings will pick up more droplets/ice

Cold Soaking Phenomenon 

  • On freezing aloft temperatures then descending into areas of high humidity
    • Also occurs in rain or drizzle when the ground temperature is above 0℃

Hold-Over Time 

  • Begins at the start of the final application of an approved deicing/anti-icing fluid and expiring when the fluid is no longer effective 
  • If able deice/anti-ice should begin at a visible point for the pilot, this way it can be seen if the fluid starts to lose its effectiveness 

Systematic De-icing Method 

  • Deicing should begin at the leading edge wing tip, sweeping in the aft in board direction
    • Leading edge to back
    • Wingtip to root 
    • Flaps and slats shall be retracted 
    • Consult the AFM as to whether it is best to have stabilizer/stabilator should be in the up or down position for based on

Wake Turbulence (IATRA Course)

Group 1 – Heavy – MOTOW of 300,000 lbs or more

Group 2 – Medium – MTOW 15500 to 300,000 lbs

Group 3 – Light  – MTOW up to and including 15500

Third Attitude Indicator 

  • Turbo Jet powered airplane 
  • Transport category a/c 
  • Turbo Propellor having passenger seating of 10+ 

ADIZ Position Report

  • Estimated point of ADIZ entry and
    • After T/O position report of location, altitude, aerodrome of departure and estimated time and point of ADIZ entry

703 Air Taxi and 704 Commuter

  • Can not operate with passengers on board in IMC when weather reports or forecasts indicate that Thunderstorms may be expected, unless….
    • The a/c is equipped with tstorm detection equipment or weather radar equipment

705 Airline 

  • As above but must be weather Radar

Accident Reporting 

  • Occurrence – accident and incident
    • Accident
      • person killed or sustains serious injury
      • Structural failure or damage to A/C
      • Aircraft is missing 
    • Incident
      • 2250 kg or greater 
      • Engine failure 
      • Smoke/Fire 
      • A/C fails to remain in landing or t/o path 
      • DG goods released from a/c

Systems (IATRA Study Notes)

Turbine engine (5 sections)

  • Inlet
    • Considered part of airframe
    • Converts ram-air pressure to static pressure 
  • Compressor
    • Takes large volumes of air, increases its pressure and reduces velocity and delivers it to combustor 
  • Combustor
    • Air divided into two streams 
  • One flows to combustor where it burns
  • 25% combustion & 75% cooling and other functions 
  • Turbine
    • Hot gases flow through turbine which drives compressor
  • Exhaust Nozzle
    • Increases the momentum of the gas 
    • Momentum from inlet to nozzle produces the majority of thrust force 

Spark Igniters 

  • Are used to light gas turbines 

Auto-ignition (relight) 

  • Systems are designed to give instantaneous re-ignition if an engine begins to lose power 

Engine Pressure Ratio (EPR) 

  • Indication of thrust
    • Rate of turbine discharge pressure: compressor inlet pressure 
    • Ex. An EPR of 2.05 means the pressure at the turbine discharge is 2.05 time as great as at the compressor. 

Compressor Ratio 

  • The ratio b/w compressor discharge pressure and engine inlet pressure 
  • Compression ratio must not get lower than the back pressure from the hot sections, otherwise airflow reverse

Compressor Stall 

  • Due to
    • Turbulence
    • High AOA
    • Sudden reduction of airflow 
  • Could be
    • A few blades stall or small area of the compressor is affected
    • All of compressor is affected
      • Causes damage 

Inlet Guide Vanes

  • Direct air to compressor (Variable or fixed)

Compressor Bleed Valves 

  • Prevent compressor from stalling (dumps air overboard when excessive) 

Fuel Control Unit 

  • Meters fuel as needed to engine
    • Collects input such as power/thrust position, air pressure and engine temperature 

Bypass Ratio 

  • The volume of air that bypasses the compressor, burner and turbine sections compared to going through the engine.
    • Low bypass (<2:1)
    • Medium bypass (2:1 to 4:1)
    • High bypass (4:1 or greater)

Hot Start 

  • Exhaust gas temperatures exceeds starting limits 
  • Slow engine acceleration, FCU continues to add fuel, non efficient accel allows temps to rise rapidly.
    • Can be caused by battery

Hung Start 

  • Normal light, but RPM does not increase to  idle. Temps can increase rapidly and exceed limitations.
    • Bleed air valves stuck closed? Air has no where to go. 


  • Uses gas exhaust to power turbine 


  • Measuring shaft HP in the reduction gear assembly 

Beta Range 

  • The region of prop position for taxi operations, very little blade angle 
  • Hydro Mechanical low pitch stop prevent the prop from entering Beta range or reverse in flight 
  • May also have squat switch, pull up/around physical stop 

Anti-skid Systems

  • Monitor wheel deceleration and provide brake release to achieve strongest braking
    • Brake release provided if excessive wheel deceleration is detected by transducers
  • Wheel speed measurements for each individual wheel determine whether the anti-skid is needed

High Pressure Vs Low Pressure (bleed air)

  • High pressure bleed air – engine de ice, cabin pressure, heating & cooling and power starters
  • Low pressure Bleed air – Gyro instruments, deicing, pressurization & outflow valves 

Miscellaneous (IATRA Ground School)

PFD/Life Preserver/Individual Floatation device 

  • Suitable for each person on board the aircraft when
    • Taking off or landing on water 
    • Beyond gliding distance from shore
      • No person shall operate aircraft more than 50 nm from shore unless a life preserver is on board for each person.


  • No person shall operate over water a single engined a/c or a multi-engine a/c that is unable to maintain flight with any engine failed at more than
    •  100 nm or distance covered in 30 minutes of flight at cruising speed, whichever comes first 
  • No person shall operate over water a multi-engined a/c that is able to maintain flight with any engine failed at more than
    •  200 nm or a cruise distance of 60 minutes, whatever comes first.
  • A person may not operate over water a transport category aircraft that is further
    • 400 nm or distance covered of 120 minutes at cruise, whichever comes first. 

Forest Fire 

  • No person shall fly below 3000’ AGL within 5 nm of a forest fire area or as described in NOTAM

Scuba Diving/ Donating blood / Pregnancy 

  • Scuba Diving
    • Flights should be delayed 12 hours for up to 8000’ (Decompression not required) 
    • Flights should be delayed for 24 hours for up to 8000’ (Decompression Required) 
    • Flights should be delayed for 24 hours above 8000’
  • Donating blood
    • Flight must be delayed 48 hours after donating blood
  • Pregnancy
    • Pilots may fly up to 30 weeks of pregnancy 
    • Pilot may begin flying after 6 weeks of the delivery
  • Anesthetic during dental
    • 24 hours  


  • GPS uses 4 atomic clock
    • Latitude
    • Longitude
    • Altitude 
    • Time

ATPL Requirements 

  • 21 years old
  • Cat 1 medical
  • Group 1 IFR (within 12 months)
  • 70% on Saron/Samra/Inrat


  • Hypoxic Hypoxia
    • Lack of oxygen to lungs and bloodstream caused by
      • High altitudes 
  • Stagnant Hypoxia
    • Lack of blood moving to brain (no oxygen for brain)
      • Sitting still to long / High G’s
  • Anemic Hypoxia
    • Body unable to absorb and carry blood
      • Carbon monoxide / Donating blood
  • Histotoxic Hypoxia
    • Organs and tissue unable to absorb oxygen
      • Alcohol


TracingRate of accumulation is slightly greater than sublimation. Deicing and Anti-icing not needed unless prolonged longer than hour. 
Light Rate of accumulation may create a problem if flight stays in environment for over 1 hour. Deicing/Anti Icing may be needed after 1 hour. 
ModerateRate of accumulation is such that short encounters become hazardous and use of Deicing/Anti Icing is necessary. 
SevereRate of accumulation is such that Deicing and Anti Icing equipment fails to reduce hazard. 

Altimeter Setting Region

  • Set to current before departure
  • Set to closest station en route 
  • Set local setting before landing

Standard Pressure Region

  • Set field elevation before departure 
  • Set prior to reaching flight level (29.92)
  • Set current altimeter setting of aerodrome before commencing descent
    • If you plan on holding or stopping descent before FL 180, stay on 29.92


A/C ReactionReaction
1. Light /  2. Light chop1. Causes slight erratic changes in altitude / attitude. 2. causes rhythmic bumpiness with small unnoticeable changes. Slight strain against seatbelts, objects may be displaced slightly
1.Moderate / 2.Moderate Chop1. Similar to light, greater in intensity causing changes in alt/att but positive control.2. Like light chop, causes rapid bumps or jolts without noticeable changes in alt/att.Definite strains against seat belts, objects are displaced 
SevereLarge abrupt changes in alt.att, large change in airspeed, a/c may lose control.Forced violently against straps, objects are tossed. 


  • Rain on windshield
    • Cause runway to look lower than it is, causing you to undershoot
  • Haze
    • Rwy will look further than it is, causing you to overshoot 
  • Upslope Runway
    • Causes you to think you’re higher than you are, causing you to undershoot 
  • Downslope Runway
    • Causes you to think you’re lower than you are, causing you to overshoot 
  • Wide Runway
    • Causes you to think you are lower than you are, causing you to overshoot
  • Terrain around Rwy is higher
    • Causes you to think you are lower, causing you to overshoot 
  • Blowing snow during taxi
    • Blowing snow may give a false impression of relative speed

Night Flying Illusions 

  • False Horizons
    • Can occur on clear moonless nights, few lights below can blend in with the stars
  • Black hole horizon
    • When approaching to land, with few ground lights and featureless terrain, leading to a curved approach possibly causing you to land short. 
  • Somatogravic Illusion
    • Caused by rapid acceleration, like t/o causing the pilot to think he is climbing too steeply and pushing the nose down. 

Comm Failure (VFR)

  • In the event of a Comm failure in B, C, & D airspace the Pilot shall
    • Leave the airspace 
    • In the event of it being in a control zone, landing at the aerodrome for which the control zone is established 
  • In any other case by shortest route, squawk 7600 and inform ATC
  • Should the communication failure happen outside of B, C, D airspace, the pilot shall
    • If precluded from contact from ATC, the pilot may enter class B, C, or D if no nearby airport is suitable, and continue with the procedures of a Comm Failure. 

Comm Failure (IFR)

  • On recognition of failure 10 minutes or less after t/o in IFR conditions
    • Select 7600 
    • Upon reaching last assigned altitude proceed directly on course 
    • Maintain last assigned altitude for 10 minutes after take off;
    • Climb to flight planned altitude  



  • Where conditions are forecasted to improve they should be applicable in the end of the BECMG time period
  • Where conditions are forecasted to deteriorate they should be applicable in the start of the BECMG period
    • Both must not be below the published alternate minima requirements for the aerodrome


  • Shall not be below published alternate minima requirements for aerodrome


  • Shall not be below the appropriate landing minima for that aerodrome
  • “I’m PROBably not going to LAND(ing mins)”

Communications Failure:

IFR communication

1. If during a SID, Follow SID Procedures

2. Squawk 7600

3. Maintain Listening Watch

4. Attempt to contact ATC or other A/C

5. Use Telephone

6. If VMC – continue flight VFR

RAIM Alert: will go off in these limits

  • 2NM en-route
  • 1 NM within terminal airspace
  • 0.3NM for a precision approach

GPS Alerts:

  • 5 NM Enroute 30 NM from destination aerodrome
  • 1 NM within terminal airspace
  • 2NM to FAF
  • 0.3NM for approach

* Will stay in  terminal if you do not change to an instrument approach!

Reverse Features 

  • Thrust reversers:
    • Fitted to exhaust systems which effectively reverse exhaust gas flow
  • Mechanical blockage reversers:
    • “Clamshells”
    • Used in turbojets
    • Once in position power may be added to deflect air forwards
  • Aerodynamic blockage reversers:
    • “Cascade Reverse”
    • Used in turbo fans
    • Series of cascading moveable vanes within either the fan exhaust or hot exhaust deflecting the escaping air forward


  • On HF (High Frequency), meteorological information for aircraft in flight
  • Ment for long distance and over seas


  • Upper Level meteorological report made on a routine basis by international air carrier aircraft

Time of useful consciousness 

  • 10,000’ – Hours
  • 20,000’ – 5-7 minutes
  • 30,000’ – 45-75 seconds
  • 40,000’ – 15-30 seconds
  • 45,000’ and above’ – 12-15 seconds


  • Green – Cleared to land 
  • Red – Give way to A/C, continue circling 
  • Flashing Green – Return for landing (Wait for solid green for clearance)
  • Flashing Red – Airport unsafe, do not land 

Comm Failure Scenarios 

  • VFR COMM Failure
    • Inside B, C, or D airspace
      • Leave the airspace 
      • Squawk 7600
      • Inform ATC as soon as possible 
      • Land as soon as practicable with NORDO procedures 
    • Outside of B, C, or D airspace
      • If there is not a suitable airport to land outside of B, C, or D…the Pilot may enter and follow the same procedures as above 
  • IFR comm failure (unable to stay VFR) 

Mountainous Areas 

  • 1&5 = 2000’
  • 2, 3, 4 = 1500’
    • Minimum altitude when flying IFR along an airway or air route within mountainous regions
      • 1000’ 
    • Altimeter can overread by 3000’ in cold temps & mountain waves 

Airworthiness Directive

Must comply with foreign A/D if aircraft was made in the

country where the A/D was issued

Hold over fluid times and usage for IATRA notes
VFR Weather Minima in Canada for IATRA
IFR Outlook for IATRA exam

Maximum holding speeds in Canada for IATRA Exam

How many hours do you need for IATRA?

There is no minimum flight time requirement for the IATRA. However, it is recommended that students have their IFR and CPL before attempting the IATRA.

How many questions are on the IATRA exam?

There are 50 questions and a time limit of 90 minutes when writing the IATRA exam.

What privileges does a pilot holding a valid IATRA have?

A pilot who has written their IATRA exam can hold a type rating on an aircraft which so requires a type rating to be held. This might be an Airbus A319 or a Dash 8.